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Lesson from Kerala floods : Human activities, climate change has disastrous effects on environment

  Lesson from Kerala floods : Human activities, climate change has disastrous effects on environment   Sagaya Fernando Mumbai: 19 October 2021   Overexploitation of natural resources and haphazard development by humans has led to climate change, resulting in long-lasting consequences on the environment. This is increasing health hazards and natural disasters, and more, day by day. The torrential flooding being witnessed recently in the state of Kerala in India is a prime example of this, say many experts.   This is not the first time that Kerala, a state of 34 million people, has been devastated by floods. It saw the worst floods in a century in 2018 when severe rains caused flash floods and landslides, killing nearly 500 people and leaving a million homeless. The following year, more than 125 people were killed in flash floods and landslides across the state. More than 50 were killed in August last year after landslides struck the hilly Munnar region.   The latest spell of torrential

In a challenging surgery, Indian doctors remove largest rectal tumour from Tanzanian man


Story by Sagaya Fernando
New Delhi: February 7, 2018

In right 32-year-old Omar Salim from Tanzania.
After a failed surgery in his home country, 32-year-old Omar Salim from Tanzania approached doctors at Sir Ganga Ram Hospital in New Delhi, India, to have two large tumours – one in the lever and another in the rectum – removed. After the challenging surgery, the doctors were surprised at the massiveness of the tumours. While the liver tumour was 15x14 centimetres in size and weighed 1.2 kilograms, the rectal tumour was 24 x 13 centimetres  in size and weighed 1.9 kilograms.

It has turned out to be the first reported synchronous resection for such a large rectal gastro-intestinal stromal tumor (GIST) with a solitary large liver lesion.

“The patient came to us in October 2017 with complaints of a large mass in the abdomen and abdominal pain since past one year. A previous attempt at surgery in his country had failed in view of the extent of the disease. He was initially evaluated with a CT scan of the abdomen which revealed that there was a large mass in relation to the rectum with compression of the urinary bladder and extending to the anterior abdominal wall upto the level of the umbilicus. There was another large mass in the left lobe of liver occupying nearly the whole of the left upper abdomen. Biopsy revealed a diagnosis of rectal GIST,” stated surgeon Dr Vivek Mangla – the Consultant Gastrointestinal and Hepatobiliary Surgeon at Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, who conducted the surgery.

Indian doctor removed two large tumours.
He said that there were many challenges in the case. “Firstly, this patient had two large tumours, one in the liver requiring a major liver resection, and the other in the rectum (distal most part of large intestine) and surgery for complete removal of both these tumours was deemed the best treatment option in the given situation. However, this entailed extensive surgery (removing a part of the liver bearing the tumour and removal of the large rectal tumour) and need for a surgical team with expertise in handling tumours and cancers of both the liver and large intestine.  It was decided to first remove the liver lesion to create some working space in the abdomen to facilitate the more complex part of removal of the rectal mass which was bigger and located in a more difficult to access location. Secondly, tumours in most of the cases of rectal GIST reported previously were smaller than 5 cm in size while the size of the tumour in this patient was nearly five times of that. The management of large tumours of the rectum is particularly challenging. These tumours tend to be very vascular and surgery for these entails the risk of major blood loss. There was very limited working space as most of the space was occupied by the tumour. Presence of vital structures in the area including the urinary bladder and ureters, and nerves supplying the muscles which work to ensure proper urinary function increases the complexity of the operation. Another challenge was that the tumour was quite close to the muscles which help in maintaining continence (ability to control the passage of stools) and it required very careful surgery to ensure that the tumour was removed completely but at the same time, the muscles required to maintain continence to stools could be preserved with a special technique more often used in treatment of distal rectal cancer (called intersphincteric resection),” stated Dr Mangla.

“To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a synchronous resection for such a large rectal GIST with a solitary large liver lesion,” he claims.
He added, “Though GISTs are seen fairly commonly in the intestinal tract but only about 5% of all cases of GIST occur in the rectum. The case was discussed in a multidisciplinary team and targeted therapy was given for three months. On re-evaluation after 3 months of therapy, it was found that there had been only a slight decrease in the size of the mass but the good thing was that there had been no progression of the disease. There was no evidence of disease spread elsewhere in the body. After detailed discussion with the patient’s family and multidisciplinary team, the patient was planned for surgery.”

The operating team led by Dr Vivek Mangla included of Urologist Dr Manu Gupta, Anesthetist Dr Akhil Kumar, three assistant surgeons and other supporting staff.

Patient underwent resection of both the lesions on January 31. The surgery lasted 7 hours and despite the extent of the tumour and surgery, and did not require any blood transfusion during the surgery. The liver tumour was 15x14 cm in size and weighed 1.2 kg. The rectal tumour was 24 x 13 cm in size and weighed 1.9 kg.

“The patient subsequently recovered uneventfully and has been discharged from the hospital,” said Dr Mangla. 


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